Basic Economics, Fourth Edition PDF Free Download

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In this February 2010 edition • A user-friendly format for easy navigation • Regular fast forward summaries emphasising the key points in each chapter • Assessment focus points showing you what the assessor will want you to do • Questions and quick quizzes to test your understanding • Question bank containing objective test questions with answers • A full index BPP Learning Media's i-Pass product also supports this paper. FOR ASSESSMENTS IN 2010 and 2011 Study Text Certificate Paper C4FUNDAMENTALS OF BUSINESS ECONOMICS For assessments in 2010 and 2011 iiFirst edition June 2006 Third edition February 2010 ISBN 9780 7517 8071 0 (previous edition 9780 7517 5282 3) e-ISBN 9780 7517 8399 5 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Published by BPP Learning Media Ltd BPP House, Aldine Place London W12 8AA www.bpp.com/learningmedia Printed in the United Kingdom Your learning materials, published by BPP Learning Media Ltd, are printed on paper sourced from sustainable, managed forests. All our rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of BPP Learning Media Ltd. We are grateful to the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants for permission to reproduce past examination questions. The suggested solutions in the exam answer bank have been prepared by BPP Learning Media Ltd. © BPP Learning Media Ltd 2010 A note about copyright Dear Customer What does the little © mean and why does it matter? Your market-leading BPP books, course materials and e-learning materials do not write and update themselves. People write them: on their own behalf or as employees of an organisation that invests in this activity. Copyright law protects their livelihoods. It does so by creating rights over the use of the content. Breach of copyright is a form of theft – as well as being a criminal offence in some jurisdictions, it is potentially a serious breach of professional ethics. With current technology, things might seem a bit hazy but, basically, without the express permission of BPP Learning Media: • Photocopying our materials is a breach of copyright • Scanning, ripcasting or conversion of our digital materials into different file formats, uploading them to facebook or emailing them to your friends is a breach of copyright You can, of course, sell your books, in the form in which you have bought them – once you have finished with them. (Is this fair to your fellow students? We update for a reason.) But the e-products are sold on a single user licence basis: we do not supply ‘unlock’ codes to people who have bought them second-hand. And what about outside the UK? BPP Learning Media strives to make our materials available at prices students can afford by local printing arrangements, pricing policies and partnerships which are clearly listed on our website. A tiny minority ignore this and indulge in criminal activity by illegally photocopying our material or supporting organisations that do. If they act illegally and unethically in one area, can you really trust them? iii Contents Page Introduction The BPP Learning Media Study Text – The BPP Learning Media Effective Study Package – Help yourself study for your CIMA assessment – Learning outcomes and syllabus – The assessment – Tackling multiple choice questions – Tackling objective test questions – International terminology Part A The goals and decisions of organisations 1 The economic problem ................................................................................3 2 Economic systems and organisations.....................................................................9 3 Theory of costs .....................................................................................39 Part B The market system and the competitive process 4 Price determination – The price mechanism...............................................................65 5 Elasticities of demand and supply.......................................................................93 6 Market failures, externalities and intervention.............................................................119 7a Market structures – Perfect competition and monopoly.....................................................135 7b Market structures – Monopolistic competition, oligopoly and duopoly .........................................163 8 Public policy and competition.........................................................................181 Part C The financial system 9 Finance and Financial Intermediaries...................................................................197 10 Credit and banking.................................................................................225 Part D The macroeconomic context of business 11 National income accounting..........................................................................251 12 Macroeconomic theory ..............................................................................273 13 Inflation and unemployment..........................................................................301 14 Macroeconomic policy..............................................................................317 15 International trade – The foreign exchange market.........................................................361 16 International trade – The international economy ...........................................................389 Appendix – Present value tables............................................................................419 Question bank .........................................................................................423 Answer bank ..........................................................................................443 Index ................................................................................................455 Review form and free prize draw iv Introduction The BPP Learning Media Study Text Aims of this Study Text To provide you with the knowledge and understanding, skills and application techniques that you need if you are to be successful in your exams This Study Text has been written around the Fundamentals of Business Economics syllabus. • It is comprehensive. It covers the syllabus content. No more, no less. • It is written at the right level. Each chapter is written with CIMA's precise learning outcomes in mind. • It is targeted to the assessment. We have taken account of guidance CIMA has given and the assessment methodology. To allow you to study in the way that best suits your learning style and the time you have available, by following your personal Study Plan (see page (vii)) You may be studying at home on your own until the date of the exam, or you may be attending a full-time course. You may like to (and have time to) read every word, or you may prefer to (or only have time to) skim-read and devote the remainder of your time to question practice. Wherever you fall in the spectrum, you will find the BPP Learning Media Study Text meets your needs in designing and following your personal Study Plan. To tie in with the other components of the BPP Learning Media Effective Study Package to ensure you have the best possible chance of passing the exam (see page (v)) Learning to Learn Accountancy BPP Learning Media's ground-breaking Learning to Learn Accountancy book is designed to be used both at the outset of your CIMA studies and throughout the process of learning accountancy. It challenges you to consider how you study and gives you helpful hints about how to approach the various types of paper which you will encounter. It can help you focus your studies on the subject and exam, enabling you to acquire knowledge, practise and revise efficiently and effectively. Introduction v The BPP Learning Media Effective Study Package Recommended period of use The BPP Learning Media Effective Study Package From the outset and throughout Learning to Learn Accountancy Read this invaluable book as you begin your studies and refer to it as you work through the various elements of the BPP Learning Media Effective Study Package. It will help you to acquire knowledge, practise and revise, efficiently and effectively. Three to twelve months before the assessment Study Text Use the Study Text to acquire knowledge, understanding, skills and the ability to apply techniques. Throughout i-Pass i-Pass, our computer-based testing package, provides objective test questions in a variety of formats and is ideal for self-assessment. One to six months before the assessment Practice & Revision Kit Try the numerous assessment-format questions, for which there are full worked solutions where relevant prepared by BPP Learning Media's own authors. Then attempt the two mock assessments. From three months before the assessment until the last minute Passcards Work through these short, memorable notes which are focused on what is most likely to come up in the assessment you will be sitting. vi Introduction Help yourself study for your CIMA assessment Assessments for professional bodies such as CIMA are very different from those you have taken at college or university. You will be under greater time pressure before the assessment – as you may be combining your study with work. There are many different ways of learning and so the BPP Study Text offers you a number of different tools to help you through. Here are some hints and tips: they are not plucked out of the air, but based on research and experience. (You don't need to know that long-term memory is in the same part of the brain as emotions and feelings - but it's a fact anyway.) The right approach 1 The right attitude Believe in yourself Yes, there is a lot to learn. Yes, it is a challenge. But thousands have succeeded before and you can too. Remember why you're doing it Studying might seem a grind at times, but you are doing it for a reason: to advance your career. 2 The right focus Read through the Syllabus and learning outcomes These tell you what you are expected to know and are supplemented by Assessment focus points in the text. 3 The right method The whole picture You need to grasp the detail - but keeping in mind how everything fits into the whole picture will help you understand better. • The Introduction of each chapter puts the material in context. • The Syllabus content, Learning outcomes and Assessment focus points show you what you need to grasp. In your own words To absorb the information (and to practise your written communication skills), it helps to put it into your own words. • Take notes. • Answer the questions in each chapter. You will practise your written communication skills, which become increasingly important as you progress through your CIMA assessments. • Draw mindmaps. • Try 'teaching' a subject to a colleague or friend. Give yourself cues to jog your memory The BPP Learning Media Study Text uses bold to highlight key points. • Try colour coding with a highlighter pen. • Write key points on cards. Introduction vii 4 The right review Review, review, review It is a fact that regularly reviewing a topic in summary form can fix it in your memory. Because review is so important, the BPP Learning Media Study Text helps you to do so in many ways. • Chapter roundups summarise the 'fast forward' key points in each chapter. Use them to recap each study session. • The Quick quiz is another review technique you can use to ensure that you have grasped the essentials. • Go through the Examples in each chapter a second or third time. Developing your personal Study Plan BPP Learning Media's Learning to Learn Accountancy book emphasises the need to prepare (and use) a study plan. Planning and sticking to the plan are key elements of learning success. There are four steps you should work through. Step 1 How do you learn? First you need to be aware of your style of learning. The BPP Learning Media Learning to Learn Accountancy book commits a chapter to this self-discovery. What types of intelligence do you display when learning? You might be advised to brush up on certain study skills before launching into this Study Text. BPP Learning Media's Learning to Learn Accountancy book helps you to identify what intelligences you show more strongly and then details how you can tailor your study process to your preferences. It also includes handy hints on how to develop intelligences you exhibit less strongly, but which might be needed as you study accountancy. Are you a theorist or are you more practical? If you would rather get to grips with a theory before trying to apply it in practice, you should follow the study sequence on page (viii). If the reverse is true (you like to know why you are learning theory before you do so), you might be advised to flick through Study Text chapters and look at examples, case studies and questions (Steps 8, 9 and 10 in the suggested study sequence) before reading through the detailed theory. Step 2 How much time do you have? Work out the time you have available per week, given the following. • The standard you have set yourself • The time you need to set aside later for work on the Practice & Revision Kit and Passcards • The other exam(s) you are sitting • Very importantly, practical matters such as work, travel, exercise, sleep and social life Hours Note your time available in box A. A viii Introduction Step 3 Allocate your time • Take the time you have available per week for this Study Text shown in box A, multiply it by the number of weeks available and insert the result in box B. B • Divide the figure in box B by the number of chapters in this text and insert the result in box C. C Remember that this is only a rough guide. Some of the chapters in this book are longer and more complicated than others, and you will find some subjects easier to understand than others. Step 4 Implement Set about studying each chapter in the time shown in box C, following the key study steps in the order suggested by your particular learning style. This is your personal Study Plan. You should try and combine it with the study sequence outlined below. You may want to modify the sequence a little (as has been suggested above) to adapt it to your personal style. BPP Learning Media's Learning to Learn Accountancy gives further guidance on developing a study plan, and deciding where and when to study. Suggested study sequence It is likely that the best way to approach this Study Text is to tackle the chapters in the order in which you find them. Taking into account your individual learning style, you could follow this sequence. Key study steps Activity Step 1 Topic list Each numbered topic is a numbered section in the chapter. Step 2 Introduction This gives you the big picture in terms of the context of the chapter, the learning outcomes the chapter covers, and the content you will read. In other words, it sets your objectives for study. Step 3 Fast forward Fast forward boxes give you a quick summary of the content of each of the main chapter sections. They are listed together in the roundup at the end of each chapter to provide you with an overview of the contents of the whole chapter. Step 4 Explanations Proceed methodically through the chapter, reading each section thoroughly and making sure you understand. Step 5 Key terms and Assessment focus points • Key terms can often earn you easy marks (and they are highlighted in the index at the back of the text). • Assessment focus points state how we think the examiner intends to examine certain topics. Step 6 Note taking Take brief notes, if you wish. Avoid the temptation to copy out too much. Remember that being able to put something into your own words is a sign of being able to understand it. If you find you cannot explain something you have read, read it again before you make the notes. Introduction ix Key study steps Activity Step 7 Examples Follow each through to its solution very carefully. Step 8 Questions Make a very good attempt at each one. Step 9 Answers Check yours against ours, and make sure you understand any discrepancies. Step 10 Chapter roundup Work through it carefully, to make sure you have grasped the significance of all the fast forward points. Step 11 Quick quiz When you are happy that you have covered the chapter, use the Quick quiz to check how much you have remembered of the topics covered and to practise questions in a variety of formats. Step 12 Question(s) in the question bank Either at this point, or later when you are thinking about revising, make a full attempt at the Question(s) suggested at the very end of the chapter. You can find these at the end of the Study Text, along with the Answers so you can see how you did. Short of time: Skim study technique? You may find you simply do not have the time available to follow all the key study steps for each chapter, however you adapt them for your particular learning style. If this is the case, follow the skim study technique below. • Study the chapters in the order you find them in the Study Text. • For each chapter: – Follow the key study steps 1-2 – Skim-read through step 4, looking out for the points highlighted in the fast forward boxes (step 4) – Jump to step 10 – Go back to step 5 – Follow through step 7 – Prepare outline answers to questions (steps 8/9) – Try the Quick quiz (step 11), following up any items you can't answer – Do a plan for the Question (step 12), comparing it against our answers – You should probably still follow step 6 (note-taking), although you may decide simply to rely on the BPP Leaning Media Passcards for this. x Introduction Moving on.. However you study, when you are ready to embark on the practice and revision phase of the BPP Learning Media Effective Study Package, you should still refer back to this Study Text, both as a source of reference (you should find the index particularly helpful for this) and as a way to review (the Fast forwards, Assessment focus points, Chapter roundups and Quick quizzes help you here). And remember to keep careful hold of this Study Text – you will find it invaluable in your work. More advice on Study Skills can be found in BPP Learning Media's Learning to Learn Accountancy book. Introduction xi Learning outcomes and Syllabus Paper C4 Fundamentals of Business Economics This is an introduction to business economics and assumes no prior knowledge of the subject. It aims to provide students with a knowledge of the fundamental economic and financial concepts necessary for conducting the role of a management accountant, and underpins their studies towards attainment of the award of Chartered Management Accountant. The first section of the syllabus introduces the key concepts of business economics, including the fundamental economic problem of how to allocate scarce resources to obtain the maximum possible benefit from them. The second section looks at the way markets operate through the interaction of supply and demand. It also looks at a range of different market structures, and considers situations where governments need to intervene to correct market failures. The third section introduces the financial system, and looks at the role of financial organisations in meeting the financial requirements of businesses and individuals. Finally, the fourth section looks at the way economies operate as a whole, and it looks at key issues such as inflation, unemployment, government economic policies and international trade. The syllabus addresses the fundamentals of the subject only and recognises that some economic systems (for example stock markets and banking systems) vary from one area of the world to another. No knowledge of a specific country’s systems is assumed, and the assessment will focus on the underlying principles of the subject rather than the detail of any specific country’s systems. Aims This syllabus aims to test students' ability to: • Distinguish the differing goals of organisations and identify how these differing goals affect the decisions made by managers • Illustrate how market economies function and identify the reasons for, and impacts of, government involvement in economic activities • Identify the role of financial institutions and markets in the provision of short and long term finance to individuals, businesses and governmental organisations • Identify how macroeconomic variables and government economic policies affect the organisation. Assessment The assessment is computer-based, lasting 120 minutes (2 hours) and comprising 75 compulsory questions. Further reading Although this Study Text is designed to provide all the information you need to tackle the C4 assessment, if you want to read more widely around the subject of business economics we recommend you look at: Sloman, J. (2007) Economics and the Business Environment, (2nd ed.), Pearson xii Introduction Learning outcomes and syllabus content C4 A – The goals and decisions of organisations – weighting 20% Learning outcomes On completion of their studies students should be able to: (i) Distinguish the goals of profit seeking organisations, not-for-profit organisations and governmental organisations; (ii) Compute the point of profit maximisation for a single product firm in the short run; (iii) Distinguish the likely behaviour of a firm's unit costs in the short run and long run; (vi) Illustrate the effects of long run cost behaviour on prices, the size of the organisation, and the number of competitors in the industry; (v) Illustrate shareholder wealth, the variables affecting shareholder wealth, and its application in management decision making; (vi) Identify stakeholders and their likely impact on the goals of not-for-profit organisations and the decisions of the management of not-for-profit organisations; (vii) Distinguish between the potential objectives of management and those of shareholders, and the effects of this principal-agent problem on decisions concerning price, output and growth of the firm. (viii) Describe the main mechanisms to improve corporate governance in profit seeking organisations. Indicative syllabus content Covered in chapter (1) The forms of ownership of organisations, by which we mean public, private and mutual, and their goals 1, 2 (2) Graphical treatment of short run cost and revenue behaviour as output increases (revenue and cost curves) and identification of point of short-run profit maximisation, using graphical techniques, and from data. 3 (3) Long run cost behaviour and the impact of economies and diseconomies of scale 3 (4) Concept of returns to shareholder investment in the short run (ROCE and EPS) and long run (NPV of free cash flows) leading to need for firms to provide rates of return to shareholders at least equal to the firm's cost of capital. 2 (5) Calculation of impact on the value of shares of a change to a company's forecast cash flows or required rate. (Note: Calculations required will be either perpetual annuity valuations with constant annual free cash flows, or NPV calculations with variable cash flows over three years.) 2 (6) Types of not-for-profit organisations (NPOs) and the status of economic considerations as constraints rather than primary objectives in the long run. 2 (7) Role of stakeholders in setting goals and influencing decisions in NPOs and potential ways of resolving differing stakeholder demands. 2 (8) The principal-agent problem, its likely effect on decision-making in profit seeking and NPO organisations, and the concepts of scrutiny and corporate governance. 2 Introduction xiii C4 B – The market system and the competitive process – weighting 30% Learning Outcomes On completion of their studies students should be able to: (i) Identify the equilibrium price in a product or factor markets likely to result from specified changes in conditions of demand or supply; (ii) Calculate the price elasticity of demand and the price elasticity of supply; (iii) Identify the effects of price elasticity of demand on a firm's revenues following a change in prices; (iv) Describe market concentration and describe the factors giving rise to differing levels of concentration between markets; (v) Describe market failures, their effects on prices, efficiency of market operation and economic welfare, and the likely responses of government to these; (vi) Distinguish the nature of competition in different market structures; (vii) Identify the impacts of the different forms of competition on prices and profitability. Indicative syllabus content Covered in chapter (1) The price mechanism: determinants of supply and demand and their interaction to form and change equilibrium price. 4 (2) The price elasticity of demand and its effect on firms' revenues and pricing decisions. 5 (3) The price elasticity of supply and its impact on prices, supply and buyers' expenditure. 5 (4) Business integration: mergers, vertical integration and conglomerates. 3 (5) Calculation of market concentration and its impact on efficiency, innovation and competitive behaviour. 7b (6) Impact of monopolies and collusive practices on prices and output and role of competition policy in regulating this. 7a, 7b, 8 (7) Factors causing instability of prices in primary goods markets (ie periodic and short run inelasticity of supply, the cobweb or hog cycle) and the implications of this for producer incomes, industry stability and supply and government policies to combat this (eg deficiency payments, set-aside, subsidies) 5 (8) Impact of minimum price (minimum wages) and maximum price policies in goods and factor markets. 4 (9) Positive and negative externalities in goods markets and government policies to deal with these (including indirect taxes, subsidies, polluter pays policies and regulation). 6 (10) Public assurance of access to public goods, healthcare, education and housing. 6 (11) Public versus private provision of services (nationalisation, privatisation, contracting out, public private partnerships). 8 xiv Introduction C4 C – The Financial System – weighting 20% Learning outcomes On completion of their studies students should be able to: (i) Identify the factors leading to liquidity surpluses and deficits in the short, medium and long run in households, firms and governments; (ii) Explain the role of various financial assets, markets and institutions in assisting organisations to manage their liquidity position and to provide an economic return to holders of liquidity; (iii) Identify the role of insurance markets in the facilitation of the economic transfer and bearing of risk for households, firms and governments; (iv) Identify the role of the foreign exchange market and the factors influencing it, in setting exchange rates and in helping organisations finance international trade and investment; (v) Explain the role of national and international governmental organisations in regulating and influencing the financial system, and identify the likely impact of their policy instruments on businesses. Indicative syllabus content Covered in chapter (1) The causes of short-term, medium-term and long-term lack of synchronisation between payments and receipts in households (ie month-to-month cash flow, short-term saving and borrowing, and longer-term property purchases and pensions provision). 9 (2) The causes of short-term, medium-term and long-term lack of synchronisation between payments and receipts in firms (ie month-to-month cash flow management, finance of working capital and short-term assets and long term permanent capital). 9 (3) The causes of short-term, medium-term and long-term lack of synchronisation between payments and receipts in governmental organisations (ie month-to-month cash flow management, finance of public projects and long-term management of the national debt). 9 (4) The principal contracts and assets issued by financial institutions and borrowers to attract liquidity in the short, medium and long term (eg credit agreements, mortgages, bills of exchange, bonds, certificates of deposit and equities) 9 (5) The roles and functions of financial intermediaries and the principal institutions and markets in the financial system. 9 (6) The influence of commercial banks on the supply of liquidity to the financial system through their activities in credit creation. 10 (7) Yield on financial instruments (ie bill rate, running yield on bonds, net dividend yield on equity), relation between rates, role of risk, the yield curve. 10 (8) Influence of central banks on yield rates through market activity and as providers of liquidity to the financial system. 10 (9) Principal insurance contracts available, and basic operation of insurance markets including terminology (eg broking, underwriting, reinsurance). 9 (10) The role of foreign exchange markets in facilitating international trade and in determining the exchange rate. 15

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  • Applied International Economics, 5th Edition
  • Richard L. Sprinkle, W. Charles Sawyer
  • 5 edition
  • Business & Money / Economics
  • 2020-05-27
  • 1138388459
  • 9781138388451
  • English
  • 560 pages
  • PDF

Book Description
Applied International Economics, 5th edition, offers a modern and accessible treatment of international economics, shifting the emphasis from pure theory to the application of theory by using the standard tools of economic analysis. This new and streamlined edition makes the real-world application of international economics even more clear than previous editions, and focuses on the basics that students will need in order to analyze information on the world economy throughout their future careers. The new edition has been refocused, revised, and thoroughly updated. Key features include:
  • Expanded coverage of China’s role in the world economy.
  • New material on how changes in trade flows can be decomposed into the extensive and intensive margins of trade.
  • New material on the use of Section 301 of U.S. trade law and the U.S.–China trade dispute.
  • Updated coverage of Brexit.
  • A new focus on the sole use of the Mundell-Fleming model to analyze balance of payments issues.
  • Improved linkages between the concepts of purchasing power parity and the real exchange rate.
Written in a thorough and engaging style, the book covers topics at a level appropriate for students specializing in business or international relations, as well as economics students. Along with a wealth of case studies and real-life examples, the book offers extensive pedagogical tools that include a companion website, end-of-chapter summaries, and explanations of key concepts and terms. For instructors, PowerPoint presentations and an extensive test bank are available.

Content

CHAPTER 1. Introduction: an overview of the world economy
CHAPTER 2. Why countries trade
CHAPTER 3. Comparative advantage and the production possibilities frontierBasic Economics, Fourth Edition PDF Free Download
CHAPTER 4. Factor endowments and the commodity composition of trade

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CHAPTER 5. Intra-industry tradeBasic economics fourth edition pdf free download windows 10
CHAPTER 6. THE FIRM IN THE WORLD ECONOMY
FourthCHAPTER 7. International factor movements
CHAPTER 8. Tariffs
CHAPTER 9. Nontariff distortions to trade
CHAPTER 10. International trade policy
CHAPTER 11. Regional economic arrangements
CHAPTER 12. International trade and economic growth
CHAPTER 13. National income accounting and the balance of payments

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CHAPTER 14. Exchange rates and their determination: a basic model
CHAPTER 15. Money, interest rates, and the exchange rate
CHAPTER 16. Open economy macroeconomicsEconomics

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CHAPTER 17. Macroeconomic policy and foating exchange rates

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CHAPTER 18. Fixed exchange rates and currency unions
CHAPTER 19. International monetary arrangements
CHAPTER 20. Capital fows and the developing countries

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