Making Sense Of Change Management (Summary) PDF Free Download

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John Kotter (1996), a Harvard Business School Professor and a renowned change expert, in his book “Leading Change”, introduced 8 Step Model of Change which he developed on the basis of research of 100 organizations which were going through a process of change.

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The business operation called ‘Change Management.’ What is Change Management? Change Management is a systematic activity to prepare an organization for and implement ongoing environmental changes in a business operation. So to speak, Change Management is about innovative strategies and speedy activities to deal with variable and sudden.

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The 8 steps in the process of change include: creating a sense of urgency, forming powerful guiding coalitions, developing a vision and a strategy, communicating the vision, removing obstacles and empowering employees for action, creating short-term wins, consolidating gains and strengthening change by anchoring change in the culture. Kotter’s 8 step model can be explained with the help of the illustration given below:

(Source: Adapted from Kotter 1996)

  1. Creating an Urgency: This can be done in the following ways:

    • Identifying and highlighting the potential threats and the repercussions which might crop up in the future.
    • Examining the opportunities which can be tapped through effective interventions.
    • Initiate honest dialogues and discussions to make people think over the prevalent issues and give convincing reasons to them.
    • Request the involvement and support of the industry people, key stakeholders and customers on the issue of change.
  2. Forming Powerful Guiding Coalitions

    This can be achieved in the following ways:

    • Identifying the effective change leaders in your organizations and also the key stakeholders, requesting their involvement and commitment towards the entire process.
    • Form a powerful change coalition who would be working as a team.
    • Identify the weak areas in the coalition teams and ensure that the team involves many influential people from various cross functional departments and working in different levels in the company.
  3. Developing a Vision and a Strategy

    This can be achieved by:

    • Determining the core values, defining the ultimate vision and the strategies for realizing a change in an organization.
    • Ensure that the change leaders can describe the vision effectively and in a manner that people can easily understand and follow.
  4. Communicating the Vision

    • Communicate the change in the vision very often powerfully and convincingly. Connect the vision with all the crucial aspects like performance reviews, training, etc.
    • Handle the concerns and issues of people honestly and with involvement.
  5. Removing Obstacles

    • Ensure that the organizational processes and structure are in place and aligned with the overall organizational vision.
    • Continuously check for barriers or people who are resisting change. Implement proactive actions to remove the obstacles involved in the process of change.
    • Reward people for endorsing change and supporting in the process.
  6. Creating Short-Term Wins

    • By creating short term wins early in the change process, you can give a feel of victory in the early stages of change.
    • Create many short term targets instead of one long-term goal, which are achievable and less expensive and have lesser possibilities of failure.
    • Reward the contributions of people who are involved in meeting the targets.
  7. Consolidating Gains

    • Achieve continuous improvement by analysing the success stories individually and improving from those individual experiences.
  8. Anchoring Change in the Corporate Culture

    • Discuss the successful stories related to change initiatives on every given opportunity.
    • Ensure that the change becomes an integral part in your organizational culture and is visible in every organizational aspect.
    • Ensure that the support of the existing company leaders as well as the new leaders continue to extend their support towards the change.

Advantages of Kotter’s Model

  • It is an easy step by step model which provides a clear description and guidance on the entire process of change and is relatively easy for being implemented.
  • Emphasis is on the involvement and acceptability of the employees for the success in the overall process.
  • Major emphasis is on preparing and building acceptability for change instead of the actual change process.

Disadvantages of Kotter’s Model

  • Since it is a step by step model, skipping even a single step might result in serious problems.
  • The process is quite time consuming (Rose 2002).
  • The model is essentially top-down and discourages any scope for participation or co-creation.
  • Can build frustration and dissatisfaction among the employees if the individual requirements are given due attention.

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The article is Written By “Prachi Juneja” and Reviewed By Management Study Guide Content Team. MSG Content Team comprises experienced Faculty Member, Professionals and Subject Matter Experts. We are a ISO 2001:2015 Certified Education Provider. To Know more, click on About Us. The use of this material is free for learning and education purpose. Please reference authorship of content used, including link(s) to and the content page url.

What is the genetic modification of plants and why are scientists doing it?
There are some big gaps between perception and reality about GM. This guide looks at what scientists are doing and why.

Published: 9 February 2009
All our guides are date stamped and reflect the scientific findings and knowledge available at the time of publication.

CC BY 1.0

Plant breeding has been very successful but it is an imprecise art. The new molecular technologies, involving both GM and marker assisted breeding (non GM) are changing this.

Prof Chris Leaver

Emeritus Professor of Plant Science, Oxford University

Did you Know?

The adoption of biological solutions such as insect-resistant crops, particularly GM cotton, is reducing the exposure of farm workers, most notably in India and China, to dangerous insecticides such as organo-phosphates.


We have found it difficult to point people towards anything that could give them a direct way into the debate without being overwhelmed by scientific detail on the one hand or polemic on the other. Faced with a likely resurgence of the GM issue, we went in search of straightforward answers. This guide is about what scientists are doing and why. We have asked a lot of people to help, from researchers at the main UK plant research institutes to farmers, toxicologists and people who could lay their hands on relevant material. Arriving at just 20 pages was tough, but here it is; we hope it helps you to cut through what you hear and to distinguish fact from misinformation.


This guide was produced in collaboration with BBSRC, the Genetics Society, the Institute of Biology, the Institute of Food Research, the John Innes Centre and the Lawes Agricultural Trust.

Reprinted in 2009 with support from the John Innes Centre, the National Farmers’ Union and the Royal Agricultural Society of England.

Making Sense Of Change Management (summary) Pdf free download. software

Reprinted in 2011 with support from the Biochemical Society, the Genetics Society, the James Hutton Institute, the John Innes Foundation, the National Farmers’ Union and the Sainsbury Laboratory.

What is the problem this guide is addressing?

Crop improvement, whether by GM or conventional breeding, is just one component of a wider social and economic debate about agriculture, food and the environment. But unless there is better understanding and well informed discussion about GM, it will be impossible for the public and policy makers to judge what crop technologies can contribute to food security and natural resource and climate change management; and it will be even harder for the research scientists in our institutes to increase our knowledge and deliver on the urgent demands of agriculture.

There are some big gaps between perception and reality. For example, conventional plant breeding already exploits crosses between plants that would not occur in nature or induces random mutations artificially with radiation or chemical agents, so it isn’t really more “natural” than GM. “Eating genes” is something that everyone does every day, whether they eat GM foods or not. GM crops are grown in 23 countries, so the world isn’t and can’t be “GM-free”. Discussion about GM also seems to have become a proxy for other much-needed discussions about food shortages, economic power of multinational corporations, food safety, farming systems and trade agreements, which go far beyond this technology and its applications


Making Sense Of Change Management (summary) Pdf Free Download Windows 10

This guide continues to be really popular and was reprinted in 2009 and 2011. Following its launch, BBC Radio 4’s Today programme used the guide to start a conversation with contributor Prof Ian Crute and Peter Melchett from the Soil Association. Prof Chris Leaver was interviewed about the guide by BBC Radio Oxford. Farming groups in particular ask for Making Sense of GM and use it to help them explain GM at meetings and conferences.


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